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Författare Ämne: Help translating and understanding columns from mantals  (läst 446 gånger)

2022-01-16, 22:49
läst 446 gånger

Utloggad George Lind

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Attached is an image from the mantal for Brandstad 1792 in Southern Sweden.
These are 3 columns on the right side of the page.
Can anyone translate the text in each column and the sub headings.
I believe the first is croft and street house man.  The seconds is inhyses and ? folk.
What is a "street house man" and how is that different from a crofter?
What is the difference between a crofter and and inhyses?  Would they both pay taxes.  Can you be both a crofter and inhyses?

I believe the bottom columns are men and women and over 63 years and under 15 years.   Does "Qvins" translate to women?
I am not sure what "med utsade" and "utan utdade" mean? 

Thanks,
George

2022-01-17, 00:40
Svar #1

Utloggad Klas Wallén

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Hi George!

Yes it is croft and gatehusmän. A gatehus (gata=street) was in the most Southern Sweden a house that was situated along a rural road together with other houses and aprox. what a Backstuga was for most Swedes. A backstuga was a place with (almost) no farm land and often a smaller house than a croft. The people who lived in a backstuga had to work with something other than farming to make a living. Next it is inhyses and löst folk. The difference between a crofter and a inhyses is huge, an inhyses do not have his own living he just stay at someone else's home at their or the Parish mercy.  The same for löst folk. Qvins is short for qvinnor or in modern Swedish kvinnor=women. Utsäde is the same as the seed you had for sowing.

Here are two links to some sites in English about the Swedish past, with some explainations regarding torp and backstugor and taxation, I think.

http://www.hhogman.se/land_ownership_eng.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backstugusittare

Regards

Klas

2022-01-17, 01:43
Svar #2

Utloggad George Lind

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Klas,
Thank you for your help with these translations.  Is " löst folk" the equivalent of what we call "homeless people" today?  People who have no home and are wandering around.
George

2022-01-17, 12:41
Svar #3

Utloggad Hans Högman

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George, “löst folk” or “lösdrivare” (i.e. vagrants) were usually homeless but the term really implies that they were unemployed.
Being unemployed was considered a crime and implied immediate punishment in the form of penal servitude. This statute was instituted in 1664 and was practiced until 1926 except for some revisions. Thus, it was a crime to be poor and drift about (vagrancy), i.e. to be unemployed.
You were then considered defenseless (försvarslös) and could be sentenced to penal servitude (straffarbete) in a house of correction. The 1885 vagrancy law decriminalized vagrancy (lösdriveri), and vagrants could instead be sentenced to forced labor (tvångsarbete), which society now regarded as a treatment rather than a punishment. You were then defenseless and could be taken out for forced labor or active military service.
Under the 1885 Act, vagrancy meant "failure to make an honest living" and included those who were "roaming about the country". A vagrant was "a person who has no permanent abode, permanent employment, means of livelihood, and who moves from place to place, supporting himself by casual labor, begging and similar, tramp, vagabond, hobo". Under the 1885 Act, vagrants could be sentenced to forced labor. /Hans

2022-01-17, 13:27
Svar #4

Utloggad George Lind

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