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Författare Ämne: Ironworks, Starby  (läst 895 gånger)

2013-05-11, 06:13
läst 895 gånger

Utloggad Karen Van Etten

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I am curious about an entry found in the Södra Åsbo härads DomBok,
dated 2 February 1684.  The entry references Jernblest o Hitsagra.
Hitsagra being an old spelling for Hedsåkra of Starby.  
Does anyone have any further information regarding an iron works in Starby?
 
Ironworks
1684ReDomBok.docx (27.6 k)

2013-05-11, 06:37
Svar #1

Utloggad Karen Van Etten

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Document snip was too large to post, so will not open.
Sorry for the error.  The entry can be found in ArkivDigital,
Södra Åsbo häradsrätt REG:1, Bild 2
 
Karen V.

2013-05-12, 00:48
Svar #2

Utloggad Sven-Ove Brattström

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Jernblest is a farm. Modern spelling is Järnbläst.
It is located about 10 km northeast of Örkelljunga.
 
(Meddelandet ändrat av brattis 2013-05-12 00:59)
Brattis (före 2004 Linewizard) = Sven-Ove Brattström

2013-05-12, 18:41
Svar #3

Utloggad Karen Van Etten

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Thank you Sven-Ove for that explanation.  I thought Jern translated to iron
and that there was some iron manufacturing being done on a Starby farm.  Now
the entry makes more sense.  
 
Springer was not a relative, but the DomBok entry was an interesting bit of  
history.  Lund records described Springer as a stads procurator.   It seems
surprising, that even in 1684, one travelled so widely to acquire properties.
Thanks again for the help.
 
Karen V.

2013-05-12, 19:27
Svar #4

Utloggad John Bentley

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Karen  
 
Your järnbläst site is referred to on p.102 of http://www.sydsvenskarkeologi.se/pdf/jarnets-roll-webb.pdf which is a fascinating and detailed paper I shall have to go through at my leisure. The diagrams etc are a treat! All about iron working in South Sweden in prehistoric and historic times. So there is no doubt that iron working was carried out there.  
 
My first Googling of järn bläst örkelljunga found in the first reference given, the phrase translated A such example is the large scale iron manufacture in a large blast furnace in Östra Spång, Örkelljunga parish, Skåne, which took place in the 15 and 16 hundreds. The actual investigation was at Raä 6:1 or Östra Spång 6:1 in Örkelljunga parish around 4 km E of the town centre by my rough checking. An idea of the date and one place.  
 
John

2013-05-12, 20:41
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Utloggad Sven-Ove Brattström

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Yes, Jern/Järn = iron. It is likely that the name Jernblest has its origin from some kind of iron manufacturing. But that was much earlier than 1684.
It was most likely of an important economical factor a couple of Centuries earlier,  but it was not an ironworks.
 
 
(Meddelandet ändrat av brattis 2013-05-12 20:55)
Brattis (före 2004 Linewizard) = Sven-Ove Brattström

2013-05-12, 21:27
Svar #6

Utloggad John Bentley

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Sven-Ove
But that was much earlier than 1684.   Why do you say that ?  Read the paper Blästbruk under 1500-1600-tal i Östra Spång (Google it) and the other paper to see what was happening when.  That was the end of the 1600s and perhaps 6 km from Järnbläst.
John

2013-05-13, 01:15
Svar #7

Utloggad Karen Van Etten

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The DomBok entry first led me to believe that Nils Andersson Springer was buying 2 farms
in Starby. But a blast furnace or iron manufacturing in Starby did not make sense.
A Christopher Gedde sold the property to Springer.  I could not find either Gedde or
Springer living in Starby.  After discovering that Springer lived and died in Lund,
his occupation, and - with the farm information received from Sven-Ove - the entry finally
made sense.  John Bentley's note, regarding the Örkelljunga area, makes sense in regards to
iron manufacture - but such manufacture did not make sense for Starby in 1684, with a  
population of approximately 60 people!   {I had relatives in Örkelljunga, so will have to
read more some day about that iron manufacturing.}
Thank you both for your conversation.
 
Karen V.

2013-05-13, 10:26
Svar #8

Utloggad John Bentley

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A last word. My interpretation is that we have a farm named in the 1600s when iron was produced in the neighbourhood, so itself a likely site of a furnace sometime in those years.  
 
And about the scale of production. I raised my eyebrows at the large (stor) blast furnace and large scale of production referred to in the reference. This is surely relative, and in this region could never have involved the large hyttor of Bergslagen. Purely that it was lake and bog ore that was available, small lumps of ore painstakingly raked out of bogs and recovered from lake bottoms. A very limited supply. So rather small scale, a seasonal occupation in a farming region ?

2013-05-13, 10:44
Svar #9

Utloggad Anna-Carin Betzén

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Karen,  
 
Please take a look at the first page of  the document John found! That's an early 18th century image of a blast furnace, and the archeologists think the one they excavated at Östra Spång is of a similar type. (Also see this reconstructed medieval blast furnace.) The large furnace at Östra Spång measures about 8 feet square on the outside, and the report says there's a smaller one too. Add a coal house, some storage for the produced iron, and a hut for the men, and that's it. Compared to e.g. 19th century ironworks, this was definitely a backyard industry. In the Bergslagen area in Sweden (southern Dalarna and parts of neighboring provinces), blast furnaces like this one were jointly owned by half a dozen or so farmers, who ran it part of the year as a side income. So I see no contradiction in running a single blast furnace in an area with a population of 60 people (including children and women). The report says that there are indications of smithing at the site; they mention that everyday objects like nails, horseshoe nails and to some degree knives and fittings may have been made there. Maybe they call it large-scale production because of the dual furnaces and traces of smithing.
 
A page at Örkeljunga muncipality's website says, in translation, that: In the 16th century, place names like Järnbläst and Smedhult (smith's forest or smith's grove) suggest some ironworking in the area. So the farm names were established long before the property was sold in 1684, and do not indicate whether there was an active blast furnace in 1684 or not.
 
The Skåne province belonged to Denmark up to 1658, and Denmark used to import iron from Sweden, but Sweden and Denmark were at war with each other half a dozen times in the 16th and 17th century, and Denmark turned to producing their own iron when couldn't import it from Sweden. They may have ran the furnace a larger part of the year compared to the part-time farmers in Bergslagen, but still a few men should have been enough to run the furnace. And perhaps they were smithing nails when they weren't all needed at the furnace.  
 
The metal analysis indicates that the iron ore may come from Markaryd in Småland, 18 miles NW of Östra Spång.
 
I hope this helps!
 
(edited after taking another look at John's document)
 
(Meddelandet ändrat av acb 2013-05-13 11:10)

2013-05-13, 13:28
Svar #10

Utloggad John Bentley

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Thanks Anne-Carin. I had not absorbed all the detail. The furnace is a bit bigger than I had envisaged, though with mull-timmer construction, perhaps not so large.  My point about relatively limited ore availability stands. No iron ore mines exist is South Sweden. My personal interest is from both having visited most of the iron related sites of Bergslagen, and in now visiting Örkelljunga itself quite frequently. I note the Commune web site adds ...... excavation finds from the construction of the new highway and Östra Spång is in fact close by the relatively new E4/24 road interchange ! Just personal interest.

2013-05-14, 08:30
Svar #11

Utloggad Stefan Magnusson

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Well, I'm not sure identifying the furnace as blast furnace is correct. As I understand it, the archeological report describes two bloomery furnaces. A bloomery furnace is an old iron reduction furnace and can be quite a lot smaller than a blast furnace. It is called a blästa or blästugn in Swedish so it is easy to make a a mistake and translate it to blast furnace.
 
A bloomery furnace is a batch furnace and doesn't need much in form of manpower or any other power for that matter. A blast furnace on the other hand is a continous process working 24/7 with a big demand on water power (to blow air into the furnace), char coal (to reduce the ore), lime (to form slag, remove impurities), and ore (obviously), it requires quite a lot of people as well.
 
In the south of Sweden, many small iron works like this did not use iron ore but myrmalm, which translates to bog iron ore, marsh ore and/or lake ore.
 
 
 
(Meddelandet ändrat av nenne428 2013-05-14 14:00)

 

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